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functional vs edible mushrooms

Functional Mushrooms vs. Edible Mushrooms

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Humans have been consuming mushrooms as food and medicine for thousands of years. There are many different species of mushrooms with a range of nutritional and therapeutic properties.

Most people are familiar with edible mushrooms. They include the varieties that you find on supermarket shelves, such as button mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, and shiitake. Some wild mushrooms are also edible, although harvesting them can be risky unless you are an experienced forager.

Functional fungi are less well known, but people are steadily becoming aware of their benefits. They are mushrooms packed with biologically active compounds, but they tend to be too woody or bitter to eat. There are a few exceptions, such as lion’s mane mushrooms, that are more palatable. However, it can be challenging to find them fresh in stores. Therefore, people usually take them as supplements instead.

This article explores functional mushroom benefits in detail and explains how they differ from more common edible types. Here’s all you need to know.

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What Are Functional Mushrooms?

Functional mushrooms are mushrooms that people use to support health and well-being.

As we already mentioned, they are rich in nutritional compounds that influence our bodies in numerous ways. One of the best-known examples is beta-glucan polysaccharides. These complex molecules act as dietary fiber and benefit the digestive system, immunity, and more.


Some functional mushrooms also contain unique chemicals that don’t exist in any other food or supplement. That’s why there is such an extensive range of products available. Some of the most popular examples include:

  • Reishi mushrooms
  • Lion’s Mane
  • Turkey tail mushrooms
  • Chaga
  • Cordyceps

People tend to take them in powder or capsule form rather than eating them whole. However, some mushrooms commonly eaten are considered functional as well, such as shiitake and maitake.

Are Functional Mushrooms Legal?

While some mushroom species have been banned due to their psychoactive properties, the great news about functional mushrooms is they are generally legal. We say generally because we cannot be aware of every law for every mushroom in every jurisdiction. It's essential to read the rules in your local area for the most accurate information.

Benefits of Functional Mushrooms vs. Edible Mushrooms

The specific benefits of functional mushrooms vary slightly depending on the type. Here we cover some of the best functional mushrooms, in our opinion, though there are many amazing ones.

Reishi: People tend to take reishi to balance physical and mental stress, support immunity, vitality, and longevity, and promote restful sleep.

Lion’s Mane: Lion’s mane is best known for its impact on cognitive function. People use it to support mental clarity, memory, focus, and alertness.

Turkey Tail: These mushrooms have a high polysaccharide content and are best known for supporting immune function and gut health.

Chaga: Chaga has potent antioxidant properties. Therefore, people use it to promote youthfulness and to support metabolic and digestive health.

Cordyceps: People tend to use cordyceps mushrooms to support energy and endurance. They may also promote cardiovascular and respiratory health and are a popular choice among athletes.

Some types of edible mushrooms have some distinct benefits too. Like functional mushrooms, they contain beta-glucan polysaccharides, although some have more than others. They are a source of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They also contain more protein than most vegetables and are low-fat and low-calorie. Therefore, mushrooms make a valuable addition to any diet.

How Can You Use Functional Mushrooms vs. Edible Mushrooms?

Many nutritionists see mushrooms as functional foods. Therefore, incorporating more edible varieties into your everyday diet is a simple way to support general health and well-being.

They are a versatile ingredient and can be cooked in many different ways. Grilling and sauteing are popular methods, but they also work well in soups, sauces, salads, and more. Some people even like to indulge in coffee with functional mushrooms!


Most functional mushrooms are less palatable due to their taste and texture. Therefore, people tend to use extracts or supplements instead. Traditionally, they would be simmered in hot water to draw out the active compounds. The resulting liquid would then be consumed as tea.

However, this method is quite time-consuming, and some varieties, such as reishi, have a very bitter taste. Therefore, most people prefer to use powders, capsules, or even gummies. These products are becoming more widely available and provide a hassle-free way to enjoy the benefits of functional mushrooms.

Functional Mushrooms vs. Edible Mushrooms: Final Thoughts

Fungi like reishi, lion’s mane, turkey tail, chaga, and cordyceps are often called functional mushrooms. They are species that are safe to consume but are not always edible in the traditional sense.

The benefits of functional mushrooms are becoming more well-known. They may help to support immunity, gut health, and more. Therefore, more and more people are choosing to take them as supplements to promote physical and mental well-being.

Many people also classify edible mushrooms as functional foods. This means that they have an above-average nutritional content and make a wonderful addition to any healthy diet.

With so many options to choose from, there really is a mushroom for everyone. So, whatever your taste or budget, it’s well worth incorporating them into your routine.

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Published on: January 10, 2022

Lynn Marie Morski

Reviewed by Lynn Marie Morski, MD, JD, who is a president of the Psychedelic Medicine Association and host of the Psychedelic Medicine Podcast. She sits on the advisory boards of Psychedelics Today, Cybin, VETS, Inc (Veterans Exploring Treatment Solutions), the Oxenberg Foundation, and the Ketamine Task Force.

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